Now showing items 76-95 of 804

    • Bacterial community structure and function shift across a northern boreal forest fire chronosequence 

      Sun Hui; Santalahti Minna; Pumpanen Jukka; Köster Kajar; Berninger Frank; Raffaello Tommaso; Asiegbu Fred O; Heinonsalo Jussi (Springer Nature, 2016)
      Soil microbial responses to fire are likely to change over the course of forest recovery. Investigations on long-term changes in bacterial dynamics following fire are rare. We characterized the soil bacterial communities ...
    • Bayesian aerosol retrieval algorithm for MODIS AOD retrieval over land 

      Lipponen, Antti; Mielonen, Tero; Pitkänen, Mikko R A; Levy, Robert C; Sawyer, Virginia R; Romakkaniemi, Sami; Kolehmainen, Ville; Arola, Antti (Copernicus GmbH, 2018)
      We have developed a Bayesian aerosol retrieval (BAR) algorithm for the retrieval of aerosol optical depth (AOD) over land from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS). In the BAR algorithm, we simultaneously ...
    • Bayesian approach to single-tree detection in airborne laser scanning - use of training data for prior and likelihood modeling 

      Luostari, Teemu; Lähivaara, Timo; Packalen, Petteri; Seppänen, Aku (IOP Publishing, 2018)
      This paper introduces a novel computational approach to handling remote sensing data from forests. More specifically, we consider the problem of detecting an unknown number of trees based on airborne laser scanning (ALS) ...
    • Bayesian estimation of seasonal course of canopy leaf area index from hyperspectral satellite data 

      Varvia, Petri; Rautiainen, Miina; Seppänen, Aku (Elsevier BV, 2018)
      In this paper, Bayesian inversion of a physically-based forest reflectance model is investigated to estimate of boreal forest canopy leaf area index (LAI) from EO-1 Hyperion hyperspectral data. The data consist of multiple ...
    • Beaming the second harmonic generation from a double layered bull's eye structure 

      Li, Fangfang; Li, Peng; Kang, Guoguo (Elsevier BVAlankomaat, 2019)
      We report on a numerical investigation of the beaming effect of second harmonic generation (SHG) from a double layered bull’s eye structure where a nanobowtie is sandwiched between. Both linear and nonlinear responses were ...
    • Behavioral testing of mice exposed to intermediate frequency magnetic fields indicates mild memory impairment 

      Kumari K; Koivisto H; Viluksela M; Paldanius KMA; Marttinen M; Hiltunen M; Naarala J; Tanila H; Juutilainen J (Public Library of Science (PLoS), 2017)
      Human exposure to intermediate frequency magnetic fields (MF) is increasing due to applications like electronic article surveillance systems and induction heating cooking hobs. However, limited data is available on their ...
    • Bessel-correlated supercontinuum fields 

      Koivurova Matias; Halder Atri; Partanen Henri; Turunen Jari (Yhdysvallat (USA), 2017)
      We examine the spatial coherence properties of supercontinuum fields generated by illuminating rotating bulk media with intense pulsed beams. Theoretical models are presented, which indicate the possibility of generating ...
    • Bio-butanol production from rice straw - Recent trends, possibilities, and challenges 

      Vivek, Narisetty; Nair, Lakshmi M; Mohan, Binoop; Nair, Salini Chandrasekharan; Sindhu, Raveendran; Pandey, Ashok; Shurpali, Narasinha; Binod, Parameswaran (Elsevier BV, 2019)
      Increase in concerns over greenhouse gas emissions and depletion of fossil fuels has led to the search for alternative strategies of energy. Rice straw mainly composed of cellulose, hemicelluloses, and lignin, is one of ...
    • Bio-molecular sensors based on guided mode resonance filters 

      Saleem Rizwan Muhammad; Ali Rizwan; Honkanen Seppo; Turunen Jari (IOP Publishing, 2016)
      In this work a low surface roughness and homogenous, high refractive index, and amorphous TiO2 layer on corrugated structures of diffractive optical element is coated by Atomic Layer Deposition (ALD) for biosensors. The ...
    • Biochar as a tool to reduce the agricultural greenhouse-gas burden - knowns, unknowns and future research needs 

      Kammann C; Ippolito JA; Hagemann N; Borchard N; Cayuela M; Estavillo JM; Fuertes-Mendizabal T; Jeffery S; Kern J; Novak J; Rasse D; Saarnio S; Schmidt H-P; Spokas K; Wrage-Mönnig N (Vilnius Gediminas Technical University, 2017)
      Agriculture and land use change has significantly increased atmospheric emissions of the non-CO2 green-house gases (GHG) nitrous oxide (N2O) and methane (CH4). Since human nutritional and bioenergy needs continue to increase, ...
    • Biochar-Based Engineered Composites for Sorptive Decontamination of Water: A Review 

      Premarathna, KSD; Rajapaksha, Anushka Upamali; Sarkar, Binoy; Kwon, Eilhann E; Bhatnagar, Amit; Ok, Yong Sik; Vithanage, Meththika (Elsevier BVSveitsi, 2019)
      Biochar (BC) exhibits a great potential as an adsorbent in decontamination of water. To improve the adsorption capabilities and impart the particular functionalities of BC, various methods (chemical modification, physical ...
    • Biodegradation of inorganic drug delivery systems in subcutaneous conditions 

      Kovalainen M; Kamakura R; Riikonen J; Finnilä M; Nissinen T; Rantanen J; Niemelä M; Perämäki P; Mäkinen M; Herzig KH; Lehto VP (Elsevier BV, 2017)
      Despite extensive efforts to develop delivery systems for oral administration, subcutaneous (s.c.) injection remains the most common way to administer peptide drugs. To limit the number of frequent injections, sustained ...
    • Biodiversity data provision and decision-making - addressing the challenges 

      Despot-Belmonte K; Neßhöver C; Saarenmaa H; Regan E; Meyer C; Martins E; Groom Q; Hoffmann A; Caine A; Bowles-Newark N; Bae H; Lange Canhos DA; Stenzel S; Bowler D; Schneider A; Weatherdon LV; Martin CS (Pensoft PublishersBulgaria, 2017)
      Essential Biodiversity Variables (EBVs) are measurements required for study, reporting, and management of biodiversity change. They are being developed to support consistency, from the collection to the reporting of ...
    • The biodiversity informatics landscape : elements, connections and opportunities. 

      Bingham HC; Doudin M; Weatherdon LV; Despot-Belmonte K; Wetzel FT; Groom Q; Lewis E; Regan E; Appeltans W; Güntsch A; Mergen P; Agosti D; Penev L; Hoffmann A; Saarenmaa H; Geller G; Kim K; Kim H; Archambeau AS; Häuser C; et.al. (Pensoft Publishers, 2017)
      There are a multitude of biodiversity informatics projects, datasets, databases and initiatives at the global level, and many more at regional, national, and sometimes local levels. In such a complex landscape, it can be ...
    • Biofiltration of airborne VOCs with green wall systems - microbial and chemical dynamics 

      Mikkonen, A; Li, T; Vesala, M; Saarenheimo, J; Ahonen, V; Kärenlampi, S; Blande, JD; Tiirola, M; Tervahauta, A (Wiley, 2018)
      Botanical air filtration is a promising technology for reducing indoor air contaminants, but the underlying mechanisms need better understanding. Here, we made a set of chamber fumigation experiments of up to 16 weeks of ...
    • Biomechanical evaluation of bone screw fixation with a novel bone cement 

      Juvonen, Tiina; Nuutinen, Juha-Pekka; Koistinen, Arto P; Kröger, Heikki; Lappalainen, Reijo (Springer Science + Business Media, 2015-07-30)
      Background Bone cement augmentation is commonly used to improve the fixation stability of orthopaedic implants in osteoporotic bone. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of novel bone cements on the stability ...
    • Biotic stress accelerates formation of climate-relevant aerosols in boreal forests 

      Joutsensaari, J.; Yli-Pirilä, P.; Korhonen, H.; Arola, A.; Blande, J. D.; Heijari, J.; Kivimäenpää, M.; Mikkonen, S.; Hao, L.; Miettinen, P.; Lyytikäinen-Saarenmaa, P.; Faiola, C. L.; Laaksonen, A.; Holopainen, J. K. (Copernicus GmbH, 2015-11-02)
      Boreal forests are a major source of climate-relevant biogenic secondary organic aerosols (SOAs) and will be greatly influenced by increasing temperature. Global warming is predicted to not only increase emissions of ...
    • Biplanar ultrasound investigation of in vivo Achilles tendon displacement non-uniformity 

      Sternoth, Lauri; Thelen, Darryl; Franz, Jason (Wiley, 2018)
      The Achilles tendon is a common tendon for the medial and lateral gastrocnemius and soleus muscles. Non‐uniform Achilles tendon regional displacements have been observed in vivo which may result from non‐uniform muscle ...
    • Bisulfate – cluster based atmospheric pressure chemical ionization mass spectrometer for high-sensitivity (< 100 ppqV) detection of atmospheric dimethyl amine: proof-of-concept and first ambient data from boreal forest 

      Sipilä, M; Sarnela, N; Jokinen, T.; Junninen, H.; Hakala, J.; Rissanen, M.P.; Praplan, A.; Simon, M.; Kürten, A.; Bianchi, F.; Dommen, F.; Curtius, J.; Petäjä, T.; Worsnop, D.R. (Copernicus GmbH, 2015-10-01)
      Atmospheric amines may play a crucial role in formation of new aerosol particles via nucleation with sulfuric acid. Recent studies have revealed that concentrations below 1 pptV can significantly promote nucleation of ...
    • Blink-Based Estimation of Suturing Task Workload and Expertise in Microsurgery 

      Bednarik, Roman; Koskinen, Jani; Vrzakova, Hana; Bartczak, Piotr; Elomaa, Antti-Pekka (2018)
      Eye-hand coordination is a central skill in microsurgery. To develop efficacious microsurgical training environments to support development of eye-hand coordination, it is important to understand the workload associated ...