Novel 3D printing-based probe for impedance spectroscopic examination of oral mucosa: design and preliminary testing with phantom models
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CitationEmran, Shekh. Laitinen, Kimmo. Lappalainen, Reijo. Myllymaa, Sami. (2020). Novel 3D printing-based probe for impedance spectroscopic examination of oral mucosa: design and preliminary testing with phantom models. Journal of medical engineering and technology, 44 (8) , 517-526. 10.1080/03091902.2020.1831633.
The diagnosis of oral potentially malignant disorders currently relies on histopathological examination of surgically removed biopsies causing pain and discomfort for the patient. We hypothesise that non-invasive bioimpedance spectroscopy (BIS) method would overcome these problems and could make possible regular screening of at-risk patients. Previously several hand-made probes have been introduced in such BIS studies. However, for the first time, we aimed to design a 3D printed probe and test it with model samples (saline solutions, cucumber and porcine tongue). We found that it is extremely crucial to select proper printable materials and optimise electrode geometries to avoid electrochemical corrosion problems, short-circuiting and other signal instabilities related to miniaturised probe. However, our final prototype constructed with four high purity silver made electrodes showed a good linearity (R 2 = 0.999) in diluted saline solution measurements over a wide conductivity range (0.25‒8 mS/cm), which covers well the range of values for the different biological tissues. Moreover, our data show that high reproducibility of the manufacturing and measurement is one important merit in the present 3D printed probe. However, further studies are needed to clarify the importance of fixed pressure especially when the tetrapolar 3D printed probe is used as a hand-held apparatus.