Exosomal vesicles enhance immunosuppression in chronic inflammation: Impact in cellular senescence and the aging process
Self archived versionfinal draft
MetadataShow full item record
CitationSalminen, Antero. Kaarniranta, Kai. Kauppinen, Anu. (2020). Exosomal vesicles enhance immunosuppression in chronic inflammation: Impact in cellular senescence and the aging process. Cellular signalling, 75, 109771. 10.1016/j.cellsig.2020.109771.
Exosomes represent an evolutionarily conserved signaling pathway which can act as an alarming mechanism in responses to diverse stresses, e.g. chronic inflammation activates the budding of exosomal vesicles in both immune and non-immune cells. Exosomes can contain both pro- and anti-inflammatory cargos but in chronic inflammation, exosomes mostly carry immunosuppressive cargos, e.g. enzymes and miRNAs. The aging process is associated with chronic low-grade inflammation and the accumulation of pro-inflammatory senescent cells into tissues. There is clear evidence that aging increases the number of exosomes in both the circulation and tissues. Especially, the secretion of immunosuppressive exosomes robustly increases from senescent cells. There are observations that the exosomes from senescent cells are involved in the expansion of senescence into neighbouring cells. Interestingly, the age-related exosomes contain immune suppressive cargos which enhance the immunosuppression within recipient immune cells, i.e. tissue-resident and recruited immune cells including M2 macrophages, myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSC), and regulatory T cells (Treg). It seems that increased immunosuppression with aging impairs the clearance of senescent cells and their accumulation within tissues augments the aging process.
Subjectsaging extracellular vesicles immune evasion immunometabolism inflammaging SASP
Link to the original itemhttp://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cellsig.2020.109771
- Terveystieteiden tiedekunta