Raman spectroscopy is sensitive to biochemical changes related to various cartilage injuries
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CitationShaikh, Rubina. Nippolainen, Ervin. Virtanen, Vesa. Torniainen, Jari. Rieppo, Lassi. Saarakkala, Simo. Afara, Isaac O. Töyräs, Juha. (2021). Raman spectroscopy is sensitive to biochemical changes related to various cartilage injuries. Journal of raman spectroscopy, [Epub ahead of print 7 Jan 2021], 10.1002/jrs.6062.
Raman spectroscopy is promising in vivo tool in various biomedical applications; moreover, in recent years, its use for characterizing articular cartilage degeneration has been developing. It has also shown potential for scoring the severity of cartilage lesions, which could be useful in determining the optimal treatment strategy during cartilage repair surgery. However, the effect of different cartilage injury types on Raman spectra is unknown. This study aims to investigate the potential of Raman spectroscopy for detecting changes in cartilage due to different injury types. Artificial injuries were induced in cartilage samples using established mechanical and enzymatic approaches to mimic trauma‐induced and natural degeneration. Mechanical damage was induced using surface abrasion (ABR, n = 12) or impact loading (IMP, n = 12), while enzymatic damage was induced using three different treatments: 30 min trypsin digestion (T30, n = 12), 90 min collagenase digestion (C90, n = 12), and 24 h collagenase digestion (C24, n = 12). Raman spectra were obtained from all specimens, and partial least squares discriminant analysis (PLS‐DA) was used to distinguish cartilage injury types from their respective controls. PLS‐DA cross‐validation accuracies were higher for C24 (88%) and IMP (79%) than for C90 (67%), T30 (63%), and ABR (58%) groups. This study indicates that Raman spectroscopy, combined with multivariate analysis, can discern different cartilage injury types. This knowledge could be useful in clinical decision‐making, for example, selecting the optimal treatment remedy during cartilage repair surgery.