Molecular endocrinology of vitamin D on the epigenome level
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ViittausCarlberg Carsten. (2017). Molecular endocrinology of vitamin D on the epigenome level. Molecular and cellular endocrinology, 453, 14-21. 10.1016/j.mce.2017.03.016.
The molecular endocrinology of vitamin D is based on the facts that i) its metabolite 1α,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 (1,25(OH)2D3) is the high affinity ligand of the nuclear receptor vitamin D receptor (VDR) and ii) the transcription factor VDR is the unique target of 1,25(OH)2D3 in the nucleus. Short-term alterations of the epigenome are primarily changes in the post-translational modification status of nucleosome-forming histone proteins, the consequences of which are i) a local increase or decrease in chromatin accessibility and ii) the activation or repression of gene transcription. Vitamin D has via VDR a direct effect on the expression of several hundred primary target genes implying numerous effects on the epigenome. Next-generation sequencing methods, such as ChIP-seq and FAIRE-seq, were applied to cellular model systems of vitamin D signaling, such as THP-1 human monocytes, and provided data for a chromatin model of vitamin D signaling. Key points of this model are that i) in the absence of ligand VDR binds to a limited number of loci within accessible chromatin, ii) a stimulation with ligand increases the number of DNA-bound VDR molecules, iii) VDR's access to genomic DNA is supported by pioneer factors, such as PU.1 in monocytes, iv) VDR binding leads to local opening of chromatin and v) the binding strength of topologically associating domain anchor forming CCCTC-binding factor sites upstream and downstream of prominent VDR binding sites is changing in response to ligand stimulation. This model provides the present basis of the molecular endocrinology of vitamin D and will be in future refined by the integration of vitamin D-sensitive chromatin markers and other genome-wide data, such as the 1,25(OH)2D3-sensitive binding of co-factors, chromatin modifying enzymes and chromatin remodeling proteins.