Prediction of ineffective elective cardioversion of atrial fibrillation: a retrospective multi-center patient cohort study
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CitationHellman Tapio. Kiviniemi Tuomas. Vasankari Tuija. Nuotio Ilpo. Biancari Fausto. Bah Aissa. Hartikainen Juha. Mäkäräinen Marianne. Airaksinen K E Juhani. (2017). Prediction of ineffective elective cardioversion of atrial fibrillation: a retrospective multi-center patient cohort study. BMC CARDIOVASCULAR DISORDERS, 17, 33. 10.1186/s12872-017-0470-0.
Elective cardioversion (ECV) of atrial fibrillation (AF) is a standard procedure to restore sinus rhythm. However, predictors for ineffective ECV (failure of ECV or recurrence of AF within 30 days) are unknown.
We investigated 1998 ECVs performed for AF lasting >48 h in 1,342 patients in a retrospective multi-center study. Follow-up data were collected from 30 days after ECV.
Median number of cardioversions was one per patient with a range of 1–10. Altogether 303/1998 (15.2%) ECVs failed. Long (>5 years) AF history and over 30 days duration of the index AF episode were independent predictors for ECV failure and low (<60/min) ventricular rate of AF predicted success of ECV. In patients with successful ECVs an early recurrence of AF was detected in 549 (32.4%) cases. Female gender, high (>60/min) ventricular rate, renal failure and antiarrhythmic agents at discharge were the independent predictors for recurrence. In total ECV was ineffective in 852 (42.6%) cases. Female gender (OR 1.44, CI95% 1.15–1.80, p < 0.01), young (<65 years) age (OR 1.31, CI95% 1.07–1.62, p = 0.01), ventricular rate >60/min (OR 1.92, CI95% 1.08–3.41, p = 0.03), antiarrhythmic medication at discharge (OR 1.48, CI95% 1.14–1.93, p < 0.01) and low (<60/ml/min) estimated glomerular filtration rate (OR 1.59, CI95% 1.08–2.33, p = 0.02) were predictors of ineffective ECV.
Female gender, use of antiarrhythmic drug therapy and renal failure predicted both recurrence of AF and the composite end point. For the first time in a large real-life study several clinical predictors for clinically ineffective ECV were identified.