Interaction effects of polyfluoroalkyl substances and sex steroid hormones on asthma among children
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CitationZhou Y. Hu LW. Qian Z. Geiger SD. Parrish KL. Dharmage SC. Campbell B. Roponen M. Jalava P. Hirvonen MR. Heinrich J. Zeng XW. Yang BY. Qin XD. Lee YLL. Dong GH. (2017). Interaction effects of polyfluoroalkyl substances and sex steroid hormones on asthma among children. Scientific Reports, 7, 899. 10.1038/s41598-017-01140-5.
To evaluate the interactions between polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) and reproductive hormones and associated asthma, a total of 231 asthmatic and 225 non-asthmatic adolescents were selected from northern Taiwan in the Genetic and Biomarkers study for Childhood Asthma from 2009–2010. The interaction between PFASs and reproductive hormones on asthma was analyzed with a two-level binary logistic regression model. The results showed that, among asthmatics, PFASs were positively associated with estradiol levels and negatively associated with testosterone levels. However, only significant association was identified for PFNA and estradiol in control group. After controlling for hormone levels, associations between PFAS exposure and asthma were consistently stronger among children with higher than lower estradiol, with odds ratios (OR) for asthma ranging from 1.25 for PFOS (95% Confidence Interval [CI]: 0.90, 1.72) to 4.01 for PFDA (95% CI: 1.46, 11.06) among boys and 1.25 for PFOS (95% CI: 0.84, 1.86) to 4.16 for PFNA (95% CI: 1.36, 12.73) among girls. Notably, the interactions between estradiol and PFASs were significant for PFOS (p = 0.026) and PFNA (p = 0.043) among girls. However, testosterone significantly attenuated the association between PFOS and asthma across sex. In conclusions, our findings suggested that reproductive hormones amplify the association between PFASs and asthma among adolescents.