NRF2 regulates endothelial glycolysis and proliferation with miR-93 and mediates the effects of oxidized phospholipids on endothelial activation
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CitationKuosmanen SM. Kansanen E. Kaikkonen MU. Sihvola V. Pulkkinen K. Jyrkkänen H-K. Tuoresmäki P. Hartikainen J. Hippeläinen M. Kokko H. Tavi P. Heikkinen S. Levonen A-M. (2017). NRF2 regulates endothelial glycolysis and proliferation with miR-93 and mediates the effects of oxidized phospholipids on endothelial activation. NUCLEIC ACIDS RESEARCH, Published: 17 November 2017, gkx1155. 10.1093/nar/gkx1155.
Phospholipids, such as 1-palmitoyl-2-arachidonoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (PAPC), are the major components of cell membranes. Their exposure to reactive oxygen species creates oxidized phospholipids, which predispose to the development of chronic inflammatory diseases and metabolic disorders through endothelial activation and dysfunction. Although the effects of oxidized PAPC (oxPAPC) on endothelial cells have been previously studied, the underlying molecular mechanisms evoking biological responses remain largely unknown. Here, we investigated the molecular mechanisms of oxPAPC function with a special emphasis on NRF2-regulated microRNAs (miRNAs) in human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) utilizing miRNA profiling, global run-on sequencing (GRO-seq), genome-wide NRF2 binding model, and RNA sequencing (RNA-seq) with miRNA overexpression and silencing. We report that the central regulators of endothelial activity, KLF2 for quiescence, PFKFB3 for glycolysis, and VEGFA, FOXO1 and MYC for growth and proliferation, are regulated by transcription factor NRF2 and the NRF2-regulated miR-106b∼25 cluster member, miR-93, in HUVECs. Mechanistically, oxPAPC was found to induce glycolysis and proliferation NRF2-dependently, and oxPAPC-dependent induction of the miR-106b∼25 cluster was mediated by NRF2. Additionally, several regulatory loops were established between NRF2, miR-93 and the essential regulators of healthy endothelium, collectively implying that NRF2 controls the switch between the quiescent and the proliferative endothelial states together with miR-93.