Risk of disability pension in first and second generation immigrants: the role of age and region of birth in a prospective population-based study from Sweden
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CitationDi Thiene D. Helgesson M. Alexanderson K. La Torre G. Tiihonen J. Mittendorfer-Rutz E. (2017). Risk of disability pension in first and second generation immigrants: the role of age and region of birth in a prospective population-based study from Sweden. BMC PUBLIC HEALTH, 17 (1) , 931. 10.1186/s12889-017-4944-x.
In several countries, immigrants have higher disability pension (DP) rates than natives. Reasons for this are poorly understood. The aim of this study was to investigate if the risk of diagnosis-specific DP differed in first, second, and second/intermediate generation immigrants compared to natives, in general and across regions of birth, and stratified by age.
A population-based prospective cohort study of all 3,507,055 individuals aged 19–50 years and living in Sweden in 2004 with a 6-year follow-up period. Hazard ratios (HR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) for mental and somatic DP were estimated by Cox regression for first, second, and second/intermediate generation immigrants compared to natives, across regions of birth and stratified by age.
After multivariate adjustment, HRs for both mental and somatic DP were higher at follow-up in the first generation compared to natives: mental HR 1.17 (CI 1.12–1.22) and somatic 1.15 (1.09–1.22) for individuals <35 years; 1.74 (1.69–1.79) and 1.70 (1.66–1.74) ≥35 years (median), respectively. Immigrants born in Europe outside EU25, and countries outside Europe had particularly elevated HRs. Also in the second generation, HRs were higher in mental 1.29 (1.21–1.37) and somatic DP: 1.30 (1.19–1.42) in those <35 years; and 1.18 (1.10–1.27); and 1.10 (1.03–1.17) for those ≥35 years, respectively. Among second generation immigrants there were no strong differences in HRs between regions of birth.
Compared to natives, the risk of DP was higher in first and second generation immigrants. Higher estimates were seen for immigrants from Europe outside EU25 and from the rest of the world in the first generation. No considerable differences in estimates regarding mental or somatic DP diagnoses were found.