Cell protrusions induced by hyaluronan synthase 3 (HAS3) resemble mesothelial microvilli and share cytoskeletal features of filopodia
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CitationKoistinen, Ville. Kärnä, Riikka. Koistinen, Arto. Arjonen, Antti. Tammi, Markku. Rilla, Kirsi. (2015). Cell protrusions induced by hyaluronan synthase 3 (HAS3) resemble mesothelial microvilli and share cytoskeletal features of filopodia. Experimental Cell Research 337 (2);, 10.1016/j.yexcr.2015.06.016.
Previous studies have shown that overexpression of enzymatically active GFP-HAS induces the growth of long, slender protrusions that share many features of both filopodia and microvilli. These protrusions are dependent on continuing hyaluronan synthesis, and disrupt upon digestion of hyaluronan by hyaluronidase. However, complete understanding of their nature is still missing.
This work shows that the protrusions on rat peritoneal surface are ultrastructurally indistinguishable from those induced by GFP-HAS3 in MCF-7 cells. Analysis of the actin-associated proteins villin, ezrin, espin, fascin, and Myo10 indicated that the HAS3-induced protrusions share most cytoskeletal features with filopodia, but they do not require adherence to the substratum like traditional filopodia.
GFP-HAS3 overexpression was found to markedly enhance filamentous actin in the protrusions and their cortical basis. Analysis of the protrusion dynamics after enzymatic digestion of hyaluronan revealed that while GFP-HAS3 escape from the protrusions and the protrusion collapse takes place immediately, the complete retraction of the protrusions occurs more slowly. This finding also suggests that hyaluronan chain maintains HAS3 in the plasma membrane.
The results of this work suggest that protrusions similar to those of HAS3 overexpressing cells in vitro exist also in cells with active hyaluronan synthesis in vivo. These protrusions are similar to common filopodia but are independent of substratum attachment due to the extracellular scaffolding by the hyaluronan coat that accounts for the growth and maintenance of these structures, previously associated to invasion, adhesion and multidrug resistance.