Identification and characterization of a novel zebrafish (Danio rerio) pentraxin-carbonic anhydrase
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CitationPatrikainen MS. Tolvanen MEE. Aspatwar A. Barker HR. Ortutay C. Jänis J. Laitaoja M. Hytönen VP. Azizi L. Manandhar P. Jáger E. Vullo D. Kukkurainen S. Hilvo M. Supuran CT. Parkkila S. (2017). Identification and characterization of a novel zebrafish (Danio rerio) pentraxin-carbonic anhydrase. PeerJ, (5) , e4128. 10.7717/peerj.4128.
Carbonic anhydrases (CAs) are ubiquitous, essential enzymes which catalyze the conversion of carbon dioxide and water to bicarbonate and H+ ions. Vertebrate genomes generally contain gene loci for 15–21 different CA isoforms, three of which are enzymatically inactive. CA VI is the only secretory protein of the enzymatically active isoforms. We discovered that non-mammalian CA VI contains a C-terminal pentraxin (PTX) domain, a novel combination for both CAs and PTXs.
We isolated and sequenced zebrafish (Danio rerio) CA VI cDNA, complete with the sequence coding for the PTX domain, and produced the recombinant CA VI–PTX protein. Enzymatic activity and kinetic parameters were measured with a stopped-flow instrument. Mass spectrometry, analytical gel filtration and dynamic light scattering were used for biophysical characterization. Sequence analyses and Bayesian phylogenetics were used in generating hypotheses of protein structure and CA VI gene evolution. A CA VI–PTX antiserum was produced, and the expression of CA VI protein was studied by immunohistochemistry. A knock-down zebrafish model was constructed, and larvae were observed up to five days post-fertilization (dpf). The expression of ca6 mRNA was quantitated by qRT-PCR in different developmental times in morphant and wild-type larvae and in different adult fish tissues. Finally, the swimming behavior of the morphant fish was compared to that of wild-type fish.
The recombinant enzyme has a very high carbonate dehydratase activity. Sequencing confirms a 530-residue protein identical to one of the predicted proteins in the Ensembl database (ensembl.org). The protein is pentameric in solution, as studied by gel filtration and light scattering, presumably joined by the PTX domains. Mass spectrometry confirms the predicted signal peptide cleavage and disulfides, and N-glycosylation in two of the four observed glycosylation motifs. Molecular modeling of the pentamer is consistent with the modifications observed in mass spectrometry. Phylogenetics and sequence analyses provide a consistent hypothesis of the evolutionary history of domains associated with CA VI in mammals and non-mammals. Briefly, the evidence suggests that ancestral CA VI was a transmembrane protein, the exon coding for the cytoplasmic domain was replaced by one coding for PTX domain, and finally, in the therian lineage, the PTX-coding exon was lost. We knocked down CA VI expression in zebrafish embryos with antisense morpholino oligonucleotides, resulting in phenotype features of decreased buoyancy and swim bladder deflation in 4 dpf larvae.
These findings provide novel insights into the evolution, structure, and function of this unique CA form.