Concentrations and number size distribution of fine and nanoparticles in a traditional Finnish bakery
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ViittausKarjalainen, Antti. Leppänen, Maija. Leskinen, Jani. Torvela, Tiina. Pasanen, Pertti. Tissari, Jarkko. Miettinen, Mirella. (2018). Concentrations and number size distribution of fine and nanoparticles in a traditional Finnish bakery. JOURNAL OF OCCUPATIONAL AND ENVIRONMENTAL HYGIENE, 15 (3) , 194-203. 10.1080/15459624.2017.1403611.
In bakeries, high concentrations of flour dust can exist and ovens release particles into the air as well. Particle concentrations (mass, number) and number size distribution may vary considerably but the variation is not commonly studied. Furthermore, the role of the smallest size fractions is rarely considered in the exposure assessment due to their small mass. The objectives of this work were to find out how concentrations and number size distribution of fine and nanoparticles vary in a traditional Finnish bakery, and to determine the exposure of a dough maker to the nanoparticle fraction of the inhalable dust.
Two measurement campaigns were carried out in a traditional, small-scale bakery. Sampling was performed at the breathing zone of the dough maker and three stationary locations: baking area, oven area, and flour depository. Both real-time measurements and conventional gravimetric sampling were conducted. Nanoparticle fraction of the inhalable dust was determined using an IOM sampler with a customized pre-cyclone.
Number concentration of fine and nanoparticles, and mass concentrations of both the inhalable dust and nanoparticles were high. The nanoparticle fraction was 9–15% of the inhalable dust at the breathing zone of the dough maker. Different sources, such as ovens and doughnut baking affected the number size distribution.
Flour dust contained nanoparticles but most of the fine and nanoparticles were released into the air from the oven operations. However, nanoparticles are not a primary concern in bakeries compared to health effects linked to the large flour particles such as flour-induced sensitization or asthma and development of occupational rhinitis.