Birth weight is associated with dietary factors at the age of 6–8 years: the Physical Activity and Nutrition in Children (PANIC) study
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CitationEloranta, AM. Jääskeläinen, J. Venäläinen, T. Jalkanen, H. Kiiskinen, S. Mäntyselkä, A. Schwab, U. Lindi, V. Lakka, TA. (2018). Birth weight is associated with dietary factors at the age of 6–8 years: the Physical Activity and Nutrition in Children (PANIC) study. Public Health Nutrition, Published online: 07 February 2018, 10.1017/S1368980017004013.
Low and high birth weight have been associated with increased risk of type 2 diabetes and CVD. Diet could partly mediate this association, e.g. by intra-uterine programming of unhealthy food preferences. We examined the association of birth weight with diet in Finnish children.
Birth weight standard deviation score (SDS) was calculated using national birth register data and Finnish references. Dietary factors were assessed using 4 d food records. Diet quality was defined by the Finnish Children Healthy Eating Index (FCHEI).
The Physical Activity and Nutrition in Children (PANIC) study.
Singleton, full-term children (179 girls, 188 boys) aged 6–8 years.
Birth weight was inversely associated (standardized regression coefficient β; 95 % CI) with FCHEI (−0·15; −0·28, −0·03) in all children and in boys (−0·27; −0·45, −0·09) but not in girls (−0·01; −0·21, 0·18) after adjusting for potential confounders (P=0·044 for interaction). Moreover, higher birth weight was associated with lower fruit and berries consumption (−0·13; −0·25, 0·00), higher energy intake (0·17; 0·05, 0·29), higher sucrose intake (0·19; 0·06, 0·32) and lower fibre intake (−0·14; −0·26, −0·01). These associations were statistically non-significant after correction for multiple testing. Children with birth weight >1 SDS had higher sucrose intake (mean; 95 % CI) as a percentage of energy intake (14·3 E%; 12·6, 16·0 E%) than children with birth weight of −1 to 1 SDS (12·8 E%; 11·6, 14·0 E%) or <−1 SDS (12·4 E%; 10·8, 13·9 E%; P=0·036).
Higher birth weight may be associated with unhealthy diet in childhood.