Comparative molecular field analysis and molecular dynamics studies of the dopamine D2 receptor antagonists without a protonatable nitrogen atom
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CitationKaczor, AA. Zuk, J. Matosiuk, D. (2018). Comparative molecular field analysis and molecular dynamics studies of the dopamine D2 receptor antagonists without a protonatable nitrogen atom. Medicinal Chemistry Research, 27 (4) , 1149-1166. 10.1007/s00044-018-2137-5.
The dopaminergic hypothesis of schizophrenia is the main concept explaining the direct reasons of schizophrenia and the effectiveness of current antipsychotics. All antipsychotics present on the market are potent dopamine D2 receptor antagonists or partial agonists. In this work we investigate a series of dopamine D2 receptor antagonists which do not fulfill the criteria of the classical pharmacophore model as they do not possess a protonatable nitrogen atom necessary to interact with the conserved Asp(3.32). Such compounds are interesting, inter alia, due to possible better pharmacokinetic profile when compared to basic, ionizable molecules. By means of homology modeling, molecular docking and molecular dynamics we determined that the compounds investigated interact with Asp(3.32) via their amide nitrogen atom. It was found that the studied compounds stabilize the receptor inactive conformation through the effect on the ionic lock, which is typical for GPCR antagonists. We constructed a CoMFA model for the studied compounds with the following statistics: R2 = 0.95, Q2 = 0.63. The quality of the CoMFA model was confirmed by high value of R2 of the test set, equal 0.96. The CoMFA model indicated two regions where bulky substituents are favored and two regions where bulky substituents are not beneficial. Two red contour regions near carbonyl groups were identified meaning that negative charge would be favored here. Furthermore, the S-oxide group is connected with blue contour region meaning that positive charge is favored in this position. These findings may be applied for further optimization of the studied compound series.