Evaluation of Salvage Logging Productivity and Costs in Windthrown Norway Spruce-Dominated Forests
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CitationKärhä, Kalle. Anttonen, Tuomas. Poikela, Asko. Palander, Teijo. Lauren, Ari. Peltola, Heli. Nuutinen, Yrjö. (2018). Evaluation of Salvage Logging Productivity and Costs in Windthrown Norway Spruce-Dominated Forests. Forests, 9 (5) , 280. 10.3390/f9050280.
Different abiotic and biotic disturbances are expected to become more common in the future due to a warming climate. Globally, post-disturbance salvage logging is becoming more predominant to recover economic value from timber in disturbed forests. This study collected comparative time-study data and analyzed the productivity of cutting for windfalls in clear cuttings and determined the cutting costs of windfalls. Furthermore, the logging (i.e., cutting and forwarding) costs of wind-damaged trees and those of undamaged standing Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) Karst.) trees in clear cuts were calculated in Finland. The results revealed that the cutting productivity of windfalls was 19–33% lower than that of undamaged stems. The cutting costs of windthrown stems with a volume of 0.3–1.5 m3 were 35–64% higher and the logging costs of windfalls were 10–30% higher than those of undamaged standing stems. The study provided new understanding regarding the productivity and costs of salvage logging operations under Finnish conditions. Even if the logging of windfalls is expensive and laborious, salvage logging operations are important for forest stands and their health to minimize post-disaster damage outbreaks in coniferous forests, such as the damage caused by bark beetles—mainly Ips typographus L.