In vivo response of the human epigenome to vitamin D: A proof-of-principle study
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CitationCarlberg, Carsten. Seuter, Sabine. Nurmi, Tarja. Tuomainen, Tomi-Pekka. Virtanen, Jyrki K. Neme, Antonio. (2018). In vivo response of the human epigenome to vitamin D: A proof-of-principle study. JOURNAL OF STEROID BIOCHEMISTRY AND MOLECULAR BIOLOGY, 180, 142-148. 10.1016/j.jsbmb.2018.01.002.
In vitro cell culture studies showed that the hormonal form of vitamin D3, 1α,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3, significantly (p < 0.05) affects the human epigenome at thousands of genomic loci. Phase II of the VitDbol vitamin D intervention trial (NCT02063334) involved a proof-of-principle study of one individual, who was exposed three times every 28 days to an oral bolus (2000 μg) of vitamin D3. Blood samples were taken directly before each supplementation as well as one and two days after, chromatin was isolated from peripheral blood mononuclear cells without any further in vitro culture and at all nine time points epigenome-wide chromatin accessibility was assessed by applying FAIRE-seq (formaldehyde-assisted isolation of regulatory elements sequencing). The vitamin D3 bolus resulted in an average raise in 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 (25(OH)D3) serum concentration of 11.9 and 19.4 nM within one and two days, respectively. Consistently accessible chromatin was detected at 5205 genomic loci, the 853 most prominent of which a self-organizing map algorithm classified into early, delayed and non-responding genomic regions: 70 loci showed already after one day and 361 sites after two days significant (p < 0.0001) chromatin opening or closing. Interestingly, more than half of these genomic regions overlap with transcription start sites, but the change of chromatin accessibility at these sites has no direct effect on the transcriptome. Some of the vitamin D responsive chromatin sites cluster at specific loci within the human genome, the most prominent of which is the human leukocyte antigen region in chromosome 6. In conclusion, this study demonstrates that under in vivo conditions a rather minor rise in 25(OH)D3 serum levels is sufficient to result in significant changes at hundreds of sites within the epigenome of human leukocytes.