Farmers' Perceptions about Climate Change Vulnerabilities and their Adaptation Measures in District Swat
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CitationBacha, Muhammad Suleman. Nafees, Mohammad. Adnan, Syed. (2018). Farmers' Perceptions about Climate Change Vulnerabilities and their Adaptation Measures in District Swat. Sarhad Journal of Agriculture, 34 (2) , 311-326. 10.17582/journal.sja/2018/34.2.311.326.
Climate variability significantly affects water, food and energy sectors particularly in developing countries. The current study focused on farmer’s perception about climate change vulnerabilities, their adaptation measures and relationship with the changing climatic records in the district Swat (Pakistan). The data collected through household interviews and focus group discussions. Total 177 questionnaires administered to sample households and 9 FGDs (Focus Group Discussions) in selected villages with the aim to understand local perceptions about changing climate, its vulnerabilities and farmers adaptive measures toward climate change in district Swat of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan. Additionally, vulnerability matrix was used to identify livelihood resources that are vulnerable to climate change induced hazards. Results showed that primarily deforestation and pollution contributed more to the perceived causes of climate change which resulted frequent and sever floods or droughts and reduction in agricultural productivity and poor farm householders with low farm holdings are more exposed to such extreme weather events. FGDs and interviews also showed various indicators of causes, impacts and observations of climate change in the study area. Vulnerability assessment revealed that cereals, vegetables and fruit orchards are vulnerable to both climatic and non-climatic factors resulting reduction in crop production. Climatic record in the study area such as increase in mean annual maximum (0.032 °C/year) and minimum temperatures (0.024 °C) and decrease in the mean annual precipitation (-0.73 mm per year) favors the local community perceptions about climate changes. To offset such worsening situation, future planning is vital to keep the natural resources intact while minimizing the risks in the years ahead.