Synergistic Effects of Ambient Temperature and Air Pollution on Health in Europe: Results from the PHASE Project
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CitationAnalitis, A. De' Donato, F. Scortichini, M. Lanki, T. Basagana, X. Ballester, F. Astrom, C. Paldy, A. Pascal, M. Gasparrini, A. Michelozzi, P. Katsouyanni, K. (2018). Synergistic Effects of Ambient Temperature and Air Pollution on Health in Europe: Results from the PHASE Project. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, 15 (9) , 1856. 10.3390/ijerph15091856.
We studied the potential synergy between air pollution and meteorology and their impact on mortality in nine European cities with data from 2004 to 2010. We used daily series of Apparent Temperature (AT), measurements of particulate matter (PM10), ozone (O3), and nitrogen dioxide (NO2) and total non-accidental, cardiovascular, and respiratory deaths. We applied Poisson regression for city-specific analysis and random effects meta-analysis to combine city-specific results, separately for the warm and cold seasons. In the warm season, the percentage increase in all deaths from natural causes per °C increase in AT tended to be greater during high ozone days, although this was only significant for all ages when all causes were considered. On low ozone days, the increase in the total daily number of deaths was 1.84% (95% CI 0.87, 2.82), whilst it was 2.20% (95% CI 1.28, 3.13) in the high ozone days per 1 °C increase in AT. Interaction with PM10 was significant for cardiovascular (CVD) causes of death for all ages (2.24% on low PM10 days (95% CI 1.01, 3.47) whilst it is 2.63% (95% CI 1.57, 3.71) on high PM10 days) and for ages 75+. In days with heat waves, no consistent pattern of interaction was observed. For the cold period, no evidence for synergy was found. In conclusion, some evidence of interactive effects between hot temperature and the levels of ozone and PM10 was found, but no consistent synergy could be identified during the cold season.