Secondary hypertension in patients with saccular intracranial aneurysm disease: A population based study
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CitationKotikoski, S. Huttunen, J. Huttunen, TJ. Helin, K. Frösen, J. Koivisto, T. Kurki, MI. von Und Zu Fraunberg, M. Kunnamo, I. Jääskeläinen, JE. Lindgren, AE. (2018). Secondary hypertension in patients with saccular intracranial aneurysm disease: A population based study. PLoS ONE, 13 (10) , e0206432. 10.1371/journal.pone.0206432.
Secondary hypertension is a serious form of hypertension, involving 5% to 10% of all hypertension patients. Hypertension is a risk factor of the saccular intracranial aneurysm (sIA) disease and subarachnoid hemorrhage from ruptured sIA (aSAH), but the impact of secondary hypertension on sIA disease is poorly known. In a defined Eastern Finnish sIA population we studied the prevalence of secondary hypertension and its impact on sIA disease phenotype.
We included 2704 consecutive sIA patients first admitted to Kuopio University Hospital from 1995 to 2014. Their clinical data from Kuopio Intracranial Aneurysm patient and Family Database was fused with prescription drug usage data, hospital diagnoses and causes of death, retrieved from nationwide registries. Medical records of hypertensive sIA patients were reviewed to confirm or exclude secondary hypertension. Prevalence of secondary hypertension and associated diagnoses were calculated. Logistic regression was used to identify clinical characteristics of sIA disease that associated with secondary hypertension.
We identified 2029 (75%) sIA patients with hypertension and 208 (10%) of them had secondary hypertension. Most frequent conditions associated with secondary hypertension were kidney and renovascular diseases (45%), sleep apnea (27%) and hypothyroidism (19%); 46 (22%) of the 208 patients had more than one such condition. In multivariate logistic regression analyses of 1561 aSAH patients, secondary hypertension significantly associated with the number of sIAs (p = 0.003; OR 1.32; 95% CI 1.10–1.58) and male gender (p = 0.034; OR 1.59; 95% CI 1.04–2.43).
Secodary hypertension was relatively common (10%) among hypertensive sIA patients. Secondary causes for hypertension should be taken into account in hypertensive sIA patients, especially in aSAH patients with multiple intracranial aneurysms. Further research is indicated to evaluate the impact of secondary hypertension on the long-term rupture risk of unruptured sIA carriers and long-term outcome after aSAH.