Genotoxicity of intermediate frequency magnetic fields in vitro and in vivo
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CitationHerrala, Mikko. Kumari, Kajal. Koivisto, Hennariikka. Luukkonen, Jukka. Tanila, Heikki. Naarala, Jonne. Juutilainen, Jukka. (2018). Genotoxicity of intermediate frequency magnetic fields in vitro and in vivo. ENVIRONMENTAL RESEARCH, 167, 759-769. 10.1016/j.envres.2018.09.009.
We assessed genotoxic effects of intermediate frequency magnetic fields (MF) in vitro and in vivo. Rat primary astrocytes were exposed for 24 h to a 7.5 kHz MF at a magnetic flux density of 30 or 300 µT. Male C57BL/6 J mice were exposed continuously for 5 weeks to a 7.5 kHz MF at 12 or 120 μT, and blood samples were collected for the genotoxicity assays. To evaluate possible co-genotoxicity, the in vitro experiments included combined exposure with menadione (an agent that induces mitochondrial superoxide production and DNA damage) and methyl methanesulfonate (an alkylating agent). DNA damage and DNA repair (in vitro) were measured using the alkaline Comet assay and formation of micronuclei was assessed microscopically (in vivo) or using flow cytometry (in vitro). The results did not support genotoxicity or co-genotoxicity of 7.5 kHz MFs at magnetic flux densities up to 300 µT in vitro or in vivo. On the contrary, there was some evidence that exposure to 7.5 kHz MFs might reduce the level of genetic damage. Strongest indication of any biological effects was obtained from measurements of relative cell number, which was significantly and consistently increased after MF exposure in all in vitro experiments. Health implications of this finding are unclear, but it suggests that 7.5 kHz MFs may stimulate cell proliferation or suppress cell death.