Phosphorus chemistry: from small molecules, to polymers, to pharmaceutical and industrial applications
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CitationPapathanasiou, Konstantinos E. Vassaki, Maria. Spinthaki, Argyro. Alatzoglou, Fanouria-Eirini G. Tripodianos, Eleftherios. Turhanen, Petri. Demadis, Konstantinos D. (2018). Phosphorus chemistry: from small molecules, to polymers, to pharmaceutical and industrial applications. Pure and Applied Chemistry, [Epub ahead of print 12 Aug 2018], 1-21. 10.1515/pac-2018-1012.
(Poly)phosphonic acids constitute an exciting family of phosphorus compounds. One of the attractive attributes of these molecules is the rich chemistry of the phosphonate moiety, and, in particular, its high affinity for metal ions and mineral surfaces. Whether the phosphonate group belongs to a “small” molecule or to a polymeric matrix, phosphonate-containing compounds have found a phalanx of real-life applications. Herein, we address a special category of phosphorus compounds called bisphosphonates (BPs, a.k.a. “-dronates”) and also phosphonate containing polymers. The success of BPs in mitigating osteoporosis notwithstanding, these “-dronate” drugs present a number of challenges. Nevertheless, the main drawback of BPs is their limited oral bioavailability. It is, therefore, imperative to design and fabricate “smart” systems that allow controlled delivery of the active BP agent. Here, easy-to-prepare drug delivery systems are presented based on silica gels. These have been synthesized, characterized, and studied as hosts in the control release of several BP drugs. They exhibit variable release rates and final % release, depending on the nature of bisphosphonate (side-chain length, hydro-philicity/-phobicity, water-solubility), cations present, pH and temperature. These gels are robust, injectable, re-loadable and re-usable. Furthermore, alternative drug delivery systems are presented that are based on metal-organic frameworks (MOFs). In these biologically acceptable inorganic metal ions have been incorporated, together with BPs as the organic portion. These materials have been synthesized, characterized, and studied for the self-sacrificial release (by pH-driven dissolution) of the BP active ingredient. Several such materials were prepared with a variety of bisphosphonate drugs. They exhibit variable release rates and final % release, depending on the actual structure of the metal-bisphosphonate material. Lastly, we will present the use of phosphonate-grafted polymers as scale inhibitors for water treatment applications.