Transcriptional Profiling of Hypoxia-Regulated Non-coding RNAs in Human Primary Endothelial Cells
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CitationMoreau, Pierre R. Örd, Tiit. Downes, Nicholas L. Niskanen, Henri. Bouvy-Liivrand, Maria. Aavik, Einari. Ylä-Herttuala, Seppo. Kaikkonen, Minna U. (2018). Transcriptional Profiling of Hypoxia-Regulated Non-coding RNAs in Human Primary Endothelial Cells. Frontiers in cardiovascular medicine, 5 (159) , 12. 10.3389/fcvm.2018.00159.
Hypoxia occurs in human atherosclerotic lesions and has multiple adverse effects on endothelial cell metabolism. Recently, key roles of long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) in the development of atherosclerosis have begun to emerge. In this study, we investigate the lncRNA profiles of human umbilical vein endothelial cells subjected to hypoxia using global run-on sequencing (GRO-Seq). We demonstrate that hypoxia regulates the nascent transcription of ~1800 lncRNAs. Interestingly, we uncover evidence that promoter-associated lncRNAs are more likely to be induced by hypoxia compared to enhancer-associated lncRNAs, which exhibit an equal distribution of up- and downregulated transcripts. We also demonstrate that hypoxia leads to a significant induction in the activity of super-enhancers next to transcription factors and other genes implicated in angiogenesis, cell survival and adhesion, whereas super-enhancers near several negative regulators of angiogenesis were repressed. Despite the majority of lncRNAs exhibiting low detection in RNA-Seq, a subset of lncRNAs were expressed at comparable levels to mRNAs. Among these, MALAT1, HYMAI, LOC730101, KIAA1656, and LOC339803 were found differentially expressed in human atherosclerotic lesions, compared to normal vascular tissue, and may thus serve as potential biomarkers for lesion hypoxia.