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dc.contributor.authorBoevé, JL
dc.contributor.authorNyman, T
dc.contributor.authorShinohara, A
dc.contributor.authorSchmidt, S
dc.date.accessioned2019-01-14T08:59:34Z
dc.date.available2019-01-14T08:59:34Z
dc.date.issued2018
dc.identifier.urihttps://erepo.uef.fi/handle/123456789/7288
dc.description.abstractPhytophagous insects tend to be either cryptic and solitary, or brightly colored and gregarious, as a defense against vertebrate predators. Here, we tested whether potent defensive chemicals produced de novo by larvae of Argidae and Pergidae sawflies have influenced the evolutionary relationship between larval appearance and levels of gregariousness. Phylogeny-based correlation analyses indicated only a weak trend for solitary species to be cryptic, and for gregarious ones to be conspicuous. Numerous Argidae were cryptic–solitary or conspicuous–gregarious, whereas most Pergidae were conspicuous–gregarious. Both families also included not truly gregarious but aggregated species, i.e. with individuals more evenly distributed on the host plant. By considering two specific morphological traits, predominant body coloration and contrasting spots on body, each one was (weakly) associated with appearance but none with gregariousness, which reflects the functional relevance of appearance as a whole. Furthermore, Argidae can display alternate appearances during successive larval instars. Finally, an independent contrasts test showed no obvious correlation between two major toxic peptides. Our results point towards diversely combined patterns of linked ecological traits in these insects. By assuming that warning coloration is more warranted against vertebrate than invertebrate predators, we suggest that the occurrence itself of toxins allowed this diversity via differing predator guilds and environmental factors, to which these insects were confronted during evolution.
dc.language.isoenglanti
dc.publisherSpringer Nature
dc.relation.ispartofseriesScientific Reports
dc.relation.urihttp://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41598-018-35925-z
dc.rightsCC BY http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/
dc.titleEndogenous toxins and the coupling of gregariousness to conspicuousness in Argidae and Pergidae sawflies
dc.description.versionpublished version
dc.contributor.departmentYmpäristö- ja biotieteiden laitos / Toiminta
uef.solecris.id59040743en
dc.type.publicationTieteelliset aikakauslehtiartikkelit
dc.rights.accessrights© Authors
dc.relation.doi10.1038/s41598-018-35925-z
dc.description.reviewstatuspeerReviewed
dc.relation.articlenumber17636
dc.relation.issn2045-2322
dc.relation.volume8
dc.rights.accesslevelopenAccess
dc.type.okmA1
uef.solecris.openaccessOpen access -julkaisukanavassa ilmestynyt julkaisu


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