Angiogenic response of rat hippocampal vasculature to focused ultrasound-mediated increases in blood-brain barrier permeability
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CitationMcMahon, Dallan. Mah, Ethan;Hynynen, Kullervo. (2018). Angiogenic response of rat hippocampal vasculature to focused ultrasound-mediated increases in blood-brain barrier permeability. Scientific Reports, 8, 12178. 10.1038/s41598-018-30825-8.
Focused ultrasound (FUS) and circulating microbubbles can induce a targeted and transient increase in blood-brain barrier permeability. While preclinical research has demonstrated the utility of FUS for efficacious drug deliver to the brain, there remain gaps in our knowledge regarding the long-term response of brain vasculature to this intervention. Previous work has demonstrated transcriptional changes in hippocampal microvessels following sonication that are indicative of the initiation of angiogenic processes. Moreover, blood vessel growth has been reported in skeletal muscle following application of FUS and microbubbles. The current study demonstrates that blood vessel density in the rat hippocampus is modestly elevated at 7 and 14 d post-FUS compared to the contralateral hemisphere (7 d: 10.9 ± 6.0%, p = 0.02; 14 d: 12.1 ± 3.2%, p < 0.01), but returns to baseline by 21 d (5.9 ± 2.6%, p = 0.12). Concurrently, relative newborn endothelial cell density and frequency of small blood vessel segments were both elevated in the sonicated hippocampus. While further work is required to determine the mechanisms driving these changes, the findings presented here may have relevance to the optimal frequency of repeated treatments.