Efficacy and safety of intravenous esmolol for cardiac protection in non-cardiac surgery. A systematic review and meta-analysis
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CitationOllila, Aino. Vikatmaa, Leena. Sund, Reijo. Pettilä, Ville. Wilkman, Erika. (2018). Efficacy and safety of intravenous esmolol for cardiac protection in non-cardiac surgery. A systematic review and meta-analysis. Annals of Medicine, 51 (1) , 17-27. 10.1080/07853890.2018.1538565.
Haemodynamic instability predisposes patients to cardiac complications in non-cardiac surgery. Esmolol, a short-acting cardioselective beta-adrenergic blocker might be efficient in perioperative cardiac protection, but could affect other vital organs, such as the kidneys, and post-discharge survival. We performed a systematic review on the use of esmolol for perioperative cardiac protection. We searched PubMed, Ovid Medline and Cochrane Central Register for Controlled trials. Eligible randomized controlled studies (RCTs) reported a perioperative esmolol intervention with at least one of the primary (major cardiac or renal complications during the first 30 postoperative days) or secondary (postoperative adverse effects and all-cause mortality) outcomes. We included 196 adult patients from three RCTs. Esmolol significantly reduced postoperative myocardial ischaemia, RR =0.43 [95% confidence interval, CI: 0.21–0.88], p = .02. No association with clinically significant bradycardia and hypotension compared to patients receiving control treatment could be confirmed (RR =7.4 [95% CI: 0.29–139.81], p = .18 and RR =2.21 [95% CI: 0.34–14.36], p = .41, respectively). No differences regarding other outcomes were observed. No study reported postoperative renal outcomes. Esmolol seems promising for the prevention of perioperative myocardial ischaemia. However, the association with bradycardia and hypotension remains unclear. Randomized trials investigating the effect of β1-selective blockade on clinically relevant outcomes and non-cardiac vital organs are warranted.