Nearest neighbor imputation of logwood volumes using bi-temporal ALS, multispectral ALS and aerial images
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CitationRäty, Janne. Packalen, Petteri. Maltamo, Matti. (2019). Nearest neighbor imputation of logwood volumes using bi-temporal ALS, multispectral ALS and aerial images. Scandinavian journal of forest research, 34 (6) , 469-483. 10.1080/02827581.2019.1589567.
We examine the nearest neighbor (NN) imputation of species-specific logwood volumes using airborne laser scanning (ALS) data and aerial images. We compare different remote sensing (RS) data combinations as predictor variables in an area-based prediction of logwood volumes using separate training and validation data. We include multispectral leaf-on ALS data, bi-temporal leaf-off ALS data and aerial images in the analyses. Two response configurations are used in the NN imputations: (1) simultaneous imputation in which species-specific logwood volumes are response variables, and (2) separate imputation by tree species in which the attributes of one tree species at a time are response variables. Although an unrealistic alternative in practical implementation, the combination of leaf-on and leaf-off ALS metrics as predictors proved to be the most successful RS data combination, according to the RMSE values associated with the predicted species-specific and dominant logwood volumes. The results showed that older leaf-off ALS data perform well in combination with leaf-on ALS data. In general, predictive performance was better with simultaneous imputation than with separate imputation by tree species. Our finding promotes an awareness of how best to utilize various RS data in future forest inventories.