Intestinal lymphatic vessels and their role in chylomicron absorption and lipid homeostasis
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CitationHokkanen, K. Tirronen, A. Ylä-Herttuala, S. (2019). Intestinal lymphatic vessels and their role in chylomicron absorption and lipid homeostasis. Current opinion in lipidology, 30 (5) , 370-376. 10.1097/MOL.0000000000000626.
Purpose of review
In this review, we describe novel findings related to intestinal lipid transport in lymphatic vessels.
Studies have shown that chylomicron entry to lacteals and lymph movement in intestinal lymphatic capillaries is an active process. Regulators of this intestinal chylomicron transport include among others the autonomous nervous system, transcription factors like PLAGL2, and molecular regulators, such as VEGF-A/Nrp1/VEGFR1, VEGF-C/VEGFR3, DLL4, CALCRL and GLP-2. Chylomicron transport in intestinal lymphatics is now emerging not only as an option for drug delivery but also as a new candidate for drug targeting in lipid-related disorders.
Dysfunctions of lymphatic lipid transport can result in conditions such as dyslipidaemia. Intestinal lymphatics also provide several potential therapeutic possibilities: molecular regulation of lacteal cell-to-cell junctioning and lymph flow could provide new ways of treating conditions like hyperlipidaemia and associated diseases, such as atherosclerosis and other cardiovascular diseases, obesity, diabetes and fatty-liver disease. The intestinal lymphatic system can also be employed to deliver lipid nanoparticles as drug carriers to the venous circulation for improved treatment outcome. These findings highlight the importance and need for research on the different players of intestinal lymphatics in dietary lipid handling and therapeutic applications.