Resvega Alleviates Hydroquinone-Induced Oxidative Stress in ARPE-19 Cells
Self archived versionpublished version
MetadataShow full item record
CitationBhattarai, Niina. Korhonen, Eveliina. Toppila, Maija. Koskela, Ali. Kaarniranta, Kai. Mysore, Yashavanthi. Kauppinen, Anu. (2020). Resvega Alleviates Hydroquinone-Induced Oxidative Stress in ARPE-19 Cells. International journal of molecular sciences, 21 (6) , 2066. 10.3390/ijms21062066.
Retinal pigment epithelial (RPE) cells maintain homeostasis at the retina and they are under continuous oxidative stress. Cigarette smoke is a prominent environmental risk factor for age-related macular degeneration (AMD), which further increases the oxidant load in retinal tissues. In this study, we measured oxidative stress and inflammatory markers upon cigarette smoke-derived hydroquinone exposure on human ARPE-19 cells. In addition, we studied the effects of commercial Resvega product on hydroquinone-induced oxidative stress. Previously, it was observed that Resvega induces autophagy during impaired protein clearance in ARPE-19 cells, for which it has the potential to alleviate pro-inflammatory pathways. Cell viability was determined while using the lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) and the 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assays, and the cytokine levels were measured using the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Reactive oxygen species (ROS) production were measured using the 2′,7′-dichlorofluorescin diacetate (H2DCFDA) probe. Hydroquinone compromised the cell viability and increased ROS production in ARPE-19 cells. Resvega significantly improved cell viability upon hydroquinone exposure and reduced the release of interleukin (IL)-8 and monocytic chemoattractant protein (MCP)-1 from RPE cells. Resvega, N-acetyl-cysteine (NAC) and aminopyrrolidine-2,4-dicarboxylic acid (APDC) alleviated hydroquinone-induced ROS production in RPE cells. Collectively, our results indicate that hydroquinone induces cytotoxicity and increases oxidative stress through NADPH oxidase activity in RPE cells, and resveratrol-containing Resvega products prevent those adverse effects.