Detecting Glucose Levels in Blood Plasma and Artificial Tear by Au(I) Complex on the Carbopol Polymer: A Microfluidic Paper-Based Method
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CitationLuo, Jong-Jheng. Pan, Sheng-Wei. Yang, Jia-Hui. Chang, Tian-Lin. Lin, Peng-Yi. Wu, Chen-Liang. Liu, Wei-Fang. Huang, Xin-Ru. Koshevoy, Igor. Chou, Pi-Tai. Ho, Mei-Lin. (2018). Detecting Glucose Levels in Blood Plasma and Artificial Tear by Au(I) Complex on the Carbopol Polymer: A Microfluidic Paper-Based Method. Polymers, 10 (9) , 1001. 10.3390/polym10091001.
We report on a selective paper-based method and a microfluidic paper-based analytical device (μPAD) for the detection of human plasma glucose and tear glucose using carbopol polymer-encapsulated Au(I) complex (AuC2C6H4OMe)2(Ph2P(C6H4)3PPh2), (B5). To the best of our knowledge, this demonstrates for the first time the glucose sensing based on dual emission, i.e., fluorescence and phosphorescence, of a single type molecule on the carbopol polymer. Upon addition of human blood treated with anticoagulants to μPADs, plasma is separated from the blood and flows into the response region of the μPADs to react with carbopol polymer-encapsulated B5, in which the ratiometric luminescence is analyzed. The plasma glucose concentration can be quantitively detected at 1.0–50.0 mM on paper, and tear glucose can be detected at 0.1–4.0 mM on μPADs. Owing to the structural design, this device has superior ratiometric changes of dual emission over other Au(I) complexes for signal transduction. The encapsulation of carbopol polymer also offers long-term storage stability. In tear measurement, carbopol polymer is not only used to encapsulate enzyme to remain the enzyme’s activity, but also played as a glue (or media) to connect microfluidic channel and response region. This further improves the sensitivity and limit of detection for glucose. Moreover, this sensor provides a faster response time, a wider range for glucose sensing than reported previously, and no statistical difference of the data from a commercial glucometer, allowing for practical diagnosis of diabetes and healthy individuals.