Changes in intestinal immunity, gut microbiota, and expression of energy metabolism-related genes explain adenoma growth in bilberry and cloudberry-fed ApcMin mice
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CitationPäivärinta Essi. Niku Mikael. Maukonen Johanna. Storvik Markus. Heiman-Lindh Anu. Saarela Maria. Pajari Anne-Maria. Mutanen Marja. (2016). Changes in intestinal immunity, gut microbiota, and expression of energy metabolism-related genes explain adenoma growth in bilberry and cloudberry-fed ApcMin mice. NUTRITION RESEARCH, (11) , 1285-1297. 10.1016/j.nutres.2016.10.003.
We showed previously that ellagitannin-rich cloudberries and anthocyanin-rich bilberries reduce the number of intestinal adenomas in multiple intestinal neoplasia/+ (ApcMin) mice. We also found that cloudberries decreased the size of adenomas, whereas bilberries increased it. Here we hypothesized that the difference in adenoma growth could be explained by dissimilar effects of the berries on intestinal immune responses and gut microbiota, potentially driven by the distinct polyphenol compositions of the 2 berries. Our objectives were to investigate lymphocyte subtypes and the predominant cecal bacterial diversity in mice fed with bilberries and cloudberries, and to analyze global gene expression profiles in the intestinal mucosa. Immunostainings of CD3+ T lymphocytes, FoxP3+ regulatory T lymphocytes, and CD45R+ B lymphocytes revealed a smaller ratio of intraepithelial to all mucosal CD3+ T lymphocytes in the cloudberry-fed mice compared with controls, suggesting an attenuation of inflammation. Bilberry feeding induced no changes in the density of any of the lymphocyte subtypes. The predominant bacterial diversity in cecal contents, analyzed using polymerase chain reaction–denaturating gradient gel electrophoresis, was higher in the bilberry group than in the control or cloudberry groups. The microbial profiles of cloudberry-fed mice clustered together and were associated with small adenoma size. Pathway analyses of gene expression data showed that cloudberry down-regulated and bilberry up-regulated the expression of energy metabolism–related genes in the intestinal mucosa. In conclusion, attenuation of intestinal inflammation, changes in microbial profiles, and down-regulation of mucosal energy metabolism may account for the smaller adenoma size in cloudberry-fed mice in comparison to bilberry-fed mice.