Myo- and cardiotoxic effects of the wild winter mushroom ( Flammulina velutipes) on mice
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CitationMustonen, AM. Määttänen, M. Kärjä, V. Puukka, K. Aho, J. Saarela, S. Nieminen, P. (2018). Myo- and cardiotoxic effects of the wild winter mushroom ( Flammulina velutipes) on mice. EXPERIMENTAL BIOLOGY AND MEDICINE, First Published March 1, 2018, 10.1177/1535370218762340.
Rhabdomyolysis (destruction of striated muscle) is a novel form of mushroom poisoning in Europe and Asia indicated by increased circulating creatine kinase levels. Particular wild fungi have also been reported to induce elevated creatine kinase activities in mice. Flammulina velutipes (enokitake or winter mushroom) is one of the most actively cultivated mushroom species globally. As it is marketed as a medicinal mushroom and functional food, it is important to examine whether it could induce potentially harmful health effects similar to some previously studied edible fungi. The present study examined the effects of F. velutipes consumption on the plasma clinical chemistry, hematology, and organ histology of laboratory mice. Wild F. velutipes were dried, pulverized, mixed with a regular laboratory rodent diet, and fed to the animals at 0, 3, 6, or 9 g/kg body mass/day for five days (n = 6/group). F. velutipes consumption caused increased activities of plasma creatine kinase and the MB-fraction of creatine kinase at 6–9 g/kg/d, indicating potentially deleterious effects on both skeletal and cardiac muscle. The plasma total and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol concentrations (at 9 g/kg/d) and white blood cell and lymphocyte counts (at 6–9 g/kg/d) decreased. Although the cholesterol-lowering properties of F. velutipes can be beneficial, the previously unexamined, potentially hazardous side effects of mushroom consumption (myo- and cardiotoxicity) should be thoroughly investigated before recommending this mushroom species as a health-promoting food item.