Association between periprosthetic tissue metal content, whole blood and synovial fluid metal ion levels and histopathological findings in patients with failed metal-on-metal hip replacement
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CitationLehtovirta, L. Reito, A. Parkkinen, J. Peräniemi, S. Vepsäläinen, J. Eskelinen, A. (2018). Association between periprosthetic tissue metal content, whole blood and synovial fluid metal ion levels and histopathological findings in patients with failed metal-on-metal hip replacement. PLOS ONE, 13 (5) , e0197614. 10.1371/journal.pone.0197614.
Adverse Reaction to Metal Debris (ARMD) is a major cause of implant failure leading to revision surgery in patients with metal-on-metal (MoM) hip arthroplasties. However, the pathogenesis and its association to implant wear are poorly understood and previous studies have yielded discrepant results. We sought to investigate the associations between histological findings, whole blood and synovial fluid metal ion concentrations and periprosthetic tissue metal concentrations in patients with MoM total hip replacements and hip resurfacings revised for ARMD. 107 hips in total were included in our study. Of these, 87 were total hip replacements and 20 were hip resurfacings, respectively. We found that whole blood, synovial fluid and periprosthetic tissue metal concentrations correlated poorly with histological findings. We suggest that the lack of a clear association between histological findings and wear measures in the present study as well as in previous studies is mostly influenced by variability in patient susceptibility. However, patients presenting with perivascular lymphocytic infiltration had lower chromium concentration in their periprosthetic tissues than patients with no perivascular lymphocytic infiltration. This may reflect the role of metal hypersensitivity in implant failure in these patients. Patients with total hip replacements evinced more necrosis and lymphocytic infiltration in their tissues than patients with hip resurfacings. This suggests that trunnion wear debris is more cytotoxic and/or immunogenic than bearing wear debris leading to higher failure rates seen in patients with total hip replacements.