Profiling of Endogenous and Gut Microbial Metabolites to Indicate Metabotype-Specific Dietary Responses: A Systematic Review
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CitationNoerman, Stefania. Kolehmainen, Marjukka. Hanhineva, Kati. (2020). Profiling of Endogenous and Gut Microbial Metabolites to Indicate Metabotype-Specific Dietary Responses: A Systematic Review. Advances in nutrition, [Epub ahead of print 09 April 2020], 1-18. 10.1093/advances/nmaa031.
Upon dietary exposure, the endogenous metabolism responds to the diet-derived nutrients and bioactive compounds, such as phytochemicals. However, the responses vary remarkably due to the interplay with other dietary components, lifestyle exposures, and intrinsic factors, which lead to differences in endogenous regulatory metabolism. These physiological processes are evidenced as a signature profile composed of various metabolites constituting metabolic phenotypes, or metabotypes. The metabolic profiling of biological samples following dietary intake hence would provide information about diet—that is, as the intake biomarkers and the ongoing physiological reactions triggered by this intake—thereby enable evaluation of the metabolic basis required to distinguish the different metabotypes. The capacity of nontargeted metabolomics to also encompass the unprecedented metabolite species has enabled the profiling of multiple metabolites and the corresponding metabotypes with a single analysis, decoding the complex interplay between diet, other relevant factors, and health. In this systematic review, we screened 345 articles published in English in January 2007–July 2018, which applied the metabolomics approach to profile the changes of endogenous metabolites in the blood related to dietary interventions, either derived by metabolism of gut microbiota or the human host. We excluded all the compounds that were directly derived from diet, and also the dietary interventions focusing on supplementation with individual compounds. After the removal of less relevant studies and assessment of eligibility, 49 articles were included in this review. First, we mention the contribution of individual factors, either modifiable or nonmodifiable factors, in shaping metabolic profile. Then, how different aspects of the diet would affect the metabolic profiles are disentangled. Next, the classes of endogenous metabolites altered following included dietary interventions are listed. We also discuss the current challenges in the field, along with future research opportunities.