Epilepsy biomarkers - Toward etiology and pathology specificity
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CitationPitkänen, Asla. Ekolle, Ndode-Ekane Xavier. Lapinlampi, Niina. Puhakka, Noora. (2019). Epilepsy biomarkers - Toward etiology and pathology specificity. Neurobiology of disease, 123, 42-58. 10.1016/j.nbd.2018.05.007.
A biomarker is a characteristic that is measured as an indicator of normal biologic processes, pathogenic processes, or responses to an exposure or intervention, including therapeutic interventions. Biomarker modalities include molecular, histologic, radiographic, or physiologic characteristics. In 2015, the FDA-NIH Joint Leadership Council developed the BEST Resource (Biomarkers, EndpointS, and other Tools) to improve the understanding and use of biomarker terminology in biomedical research, clinical practice, and medical product development. The BEST biomarker categories include: (a) susceptibility/risk biomarkers, (b) diagnostic biomarkers, (c) monitoring biomarkers, (d) prognostic biomarkers, (e) predictive biomarkers, (f) pharmacodynamic/response biomarkers, and (g) safety biomarkers. Here we review 30 epilepsy biomarker studies that have identified (a) diagnostic biomarkers for epilepsy, epileptogenesis, epileptogenicity, drug-refractoriness, and status epilepticus - some of the epileptogenesis and epileptogenicity biomarkers can also be considered prognostic biomarkers for the development of epilepsy in subjects with a given brain insult, (b) predictive biomarkers for epilepsy surgery outcome, and (c) a response biomarker for therapy outcome. The biomarker modalities include plasma/serum/exosomal and cerebrospinal fluid molecular biomarkers, brain tissue molecular biomarkers, imaging biomarkers, electrophysiologic biomarkers, and behavioral/cognitive biomarkers. Both single and combinatory biomarkers have been described. Most of the reviewed biomarkers have an area under the curve >0.800 in receiver operating characteristics analysis, suggesting high sensitivity and specificity. As discussed in this review, we are in the early phase of the learning curve in epilepsy biomarker discovery. Many of the seven biomarker categories lack epilepsy-related biomarkers. There is a need for epilepsy biomarker discovery using proper, statistically powered study designs with validation cohorts, and the development and use of novel analytical methods. A strategic roadmap to discuss the research priorities in epilepsy biomarker discovery, regulatory issues, and optimization of the use of resources, similar to those devised in the cancer and Alzheimer's disease research areas, is also needed.